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ES5/ES6 的继承除了写法以外还有什么区别?

class 声明会提升,但不会初始化赋值。Foo 进入暂时性死区,类似于 let、const 声明变量

const bar = new Bar(); // it's ok
function Bar() {
  this.bar = 42;
}

const foo = new Foo(); // ReferenceError: Foo is not defined
class Foo {
  constructor() {
    this.foo = 42;
  }
}

class 声明内部会启用严格模式

// 引用一个未声明的变量
function Bar() {
  baz = 42; // it's ok
}
const bar = new Bar();

class Foo {
  constructor() {
    fol = 42; // ReferenceError: fol is not defined
  }
}
const foo = new Foo();

class 的所有方法(包括静态方法和实例方法)都是不可枚举的

// 引用一个未声明的变量
function Bar() {
  this.bar = 42;
}
Bar.answer = function() {
  return 42;
};
Bar.prototype.print = function() {
  console.log(this.bar);
};
const barKeys = Object.keys(Bar); // ['answer']
const barProtoKeys = Object.keys(Bar.prototype); // ['print']

class Foo {
  constructor() {
    this.foo = 42;
  }
  static answer() {
    return 42;
  }
  print() {
    console.log(this.foo);
  }
}
const fooKeys = Object.keys(Foo); // []
const fooProtoKeys = Object.keys(Foo.prototype); // []

class 的所有方法(包括静态方法和实例方法)都没有原型对象 prototype,所以也没有[[construct]],不能使用 new 来调用

function Bar() {
  this.bar = 42;
}
Bar.prototype.print = function() {
  console.log(this.bar);
};

const bar = new Bar();
const barPrint = new bar.print(); // it's ok

class Foo {
  constructor() {
    this.foo = 42;
  }
  print() {
    console.log(this.foo);
  }
}
const foo = new Foo();
const fooPrint = new foo.print(); // TypeError: foo.print is not a constructor

必须使用 new 调用 class

function Bar() {
  this.bar = 42;
}
const bar = Bar(); // it's ok

class Foo {
  constructor() {
    this.foo = 42;
  }
}
const foo = Foo(); // TypeError: Class constructor Foo cannot be invoked without 'new'

class 内部无法重写类名

function Bar() {
  Bar = 'Baz'; // it's ok
  this.bar = 42;
}
const bar = new Bar();
// Bar: 'Baz'
// bar: Bar {bar: 42}  

class Foo {
  constructor() {
    this.foo = 42;
    Foo = 'Fol'; // TypeError: Assignment to constant variable
  }
}
const foo = new Foo();
Foo = 'Fol'; // it's ok

 

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