Rust WebAssembly 实现视频实时滤镜效果

之前立过一个 Flag 要用 Rust WebAssembly 来实现视频实时滤镜效果,今天来完成一下。

首先,我们按照 Rust and WebAssembly 的教程先搭建起我们的开发环境。

查阅 wasm-bindgen 文档后发现,可以直接将 CanvasRenderingContext2d 从 JS 传递到 WASM:

import('./pkg')
  .then((wasm) => {
    ...
    const ctx = canvas.getContext('2d')
    ...
    wasm.draw(ctx, 600, 600, -0.15, 0.65)
  })
  .catch(console.error)
use web_sys::{CanvasRenderingContext2d, ImageData};

#[wasm_bindgen]
pub fn draw(
    ctx: &CanvasRenderingContext2d,
    width: u32,
    height: u32,
    real: f64,
    imaginary: f64,
) -> Result<(), JsValue> {
    // The real workhorse of this algorithm, generating pixel data
    let c = Complex { real, imaginary };
    let data = get_julia_set(width, height, c);
    let data = ImageData::new_with_u8_clamped_array_and_sh(Clamped(&data), width, height)?;
    ctx.put_image_data(&data, 0.0, 0.0)
}

这样实现起来就跟 JS 很相似了:

#[wasm_bindgen]
pub fn filter(
    ctx_hidden: &CanvasRenderingContext2d,
    ctx: &CanvasRenderingContext2d,
    width: u32,
    height: u32,
    kernel: Vec<f32>,
) {
    set_panic_hook();
    // Like const imageData = ctx.getImageData(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height) in JS
    let image_data = ctx_hidden
        .get_image_data(0.0, 0.0, width as f64, height as f64)
        .unwrap();
    // Like imageData.data in JS
    let mut data = image_data.data();
    let data_ref = data.deref_mut();
    let h = (kernel.len() as f64).sqrt() as u32;
    let half = h / 2;

    // Image convolution
    for y in half..(height - half) {
        for x in half..(width - half) {
            let px = ((y * width + x) * 4) as usize;
            let mut r = 0_f32;
            let mut g = 0_f32;
            let mut b = 0_f32;
            for cy in 0..h {
                for cx in 0..h {
                    let cpx = (((y + cy - half) * width + (x + cx - half)) * 4) as usize;
                    let k = kernel[(cy * h + cx) as usize];
                    r += (data_ref[cpx + 0] as f32) * k;
                    g += (data_ref[cpx + 1] as f32) * k;
                    b += (data_ref[cpx + 2] as f32) * k;
                }
            }
            data_ref[px + 0] = r as u8;
            data_ref[px + 1] = g as u8;
            data_ref[px + 2] = b as u8;
        }
    }

    // Create new imageData using modified data
    let image_data =
        ImageData::new_with_u8_clamped_array_and_sh(Clamped(data_ref), width, height).unwrap();

    // Like ctx.putImageData(imageData, 0, 0) in JS
    ctx.put_image_data(&image_data, 0.0, 0.0)
        .expect("put image data panic")
}

对比 JS 和 Rust WASM 的结果,发现 Rust WASM 的性能要更好一些:

Rust WebAssembly 实现视频实时滤镜效果

Rust WebAssembly 实现视频实时滤镜效果

当然,我们也可以继续参考之前 Golang 的方法,通过在 JS 和 WASM 之间共享内存来实现。通过搜索,我们可以找到这个例子

use std::ptr;
use wasm_bindgen::prelude::*;

#[wasm_bindgen]
pub fn take_pointer_by_value(x: *mut u8) {}

#[wasm_bindgen]
pub fn return_pointer() -> *mut u8 {
    ptr::null_mut()
}
import {
  take_pointer_by_value,
  return_pointer,
} from './guide_supported_types_examples'
import {memory} from './guide_supported_types_examples_bg'

let ptr = return_pointer()
let buf = new Uint8Array(memory.buffer)
let value = buf[ptr]
console.log(`The byte at the ${ptr} address is ${value}`)

take_pointer_by_value(ptr)

上述代码可以用下图来进行理解:

Rust WebAssembly 实现视频实时滤镜效果

在 WASM 中可以通过指针偏移操作来访问或修改共享内存,而在 JS 中由于 memory.buffer 是 ArrayBuffer 类型,不能直接操作,需要创建“类型化数组对象”如 Uint8Array 来读写其内容。除了 Uint8Array 外,还有 Uint16Array 等其他类型,更多内容可以参考 MDN。他们的不同之处主要在于数组元素的取值范围以及所占用的字节数不同,比如上面的例子如果换成 Uint16Array 就会像这样:

Rust WebAssembly 实现视频实时滤镜效果

所以,通过共享内存,我们可以把图像数据从 JS 同步到 WASM,然后在 WASM 中修改共享内存的值,最后从共享内存中读出更新后的结果。代码大概长这样:

#[wasm_bindgen]
pub fn filter_shared_mem(ptr: *mut u8, width: u32, height: u32, kernel: Vec<f32>) {
    unsafe {
        let h = (kernel.len() as f64).sqrt() as u32;
        let half = h / 2;
        for y in half..(height - half) {
            for x in half..(width - half) {
                let px = ((y * width + x) * 4) as usize;
                let mut r = 0_f32;
                let mut g = 0_f32;
                let mut b = 0_f32;
                for cy in 0..h {
                    for cx in 0..h {
                        let cpx = (((y + cy - half) * width + (x + cx - half)) * 4) as usize;
                        let k = kernel[(cy * h + cx) as usize];
                        r += (*ptr.wrapping_add(cpx + 0) as f32) * k;
                        g += (*ptr.wrapping_add(cpx + 1) as f32) * k;
                        b += (*ptr.wrapping_add(cpx + 2) as f32) * k;
                    }
                }
                *ptr.wrapping_add(px + 0) = r as u8;
                *ptr.wrapping_add(px + 1) = g as u8;
                *ptr.wrapping_add(px + 2) = b as u8;
            }
        }
    }
}
import {return_pointer, filter_shared_mem} from 'rust-filter/rust_filter'
import {memory} from 'rust-filter/rust_filter_bg.wasm'

const ptr = return_pointer()
const uint8ClampedArray = new Uint8ClampedArray(memory.buffer)
// Sync imageData to shared memory
const imageData = ctx.getImageData(0, 0, canvas.width, canvas.height)
uint8ClampedArray.set(imageData)
// Update shared memory
filter_shared_mem(
  ptr,
  canvas.width,
  canvas.height,
  new Float32Array([].concat(...kernel))
)
// Update imageData using modified memory.buffer, as the memory.buffer's size is larger than our image's data, we need to slice.
pixels.data.set(
  new Uint8ClampedArray(memory.buffer).slice(
    0,
    canvas.width * canvas.height * 4
  )
)
// Render to canvas
ctx.putImageData(imageData, 0, 0)

结果发现,共享内存的性能相比直接传递 CanvasRenderingContext2d 还要好一些:

Rust WebAssembly 实现视频实时滤镜效果

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原文链接:https://juejin.cn/post/7340307383505862696 作者:Aaaaaaaaaaayou

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